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BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi ca...

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BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e 2016NOV Wha ti sphot os ynt he s i s ?G26TB260+S G61  Thec onve r s i onofl i g hte ne r g yt oc he mi c a l e ne r g y t ha ti ss t or e di ns ug a r s( g l uc os e )  orot he ror g a ni cc ompounds i toc c ur si npl a nt s, a l g a e a ndc e r t a i npr oka r yot e s I tnour i s he sa l mos tt hee nt i r el i vi ngwor l ddi r e c t l y/i ndi r e c t l y I ti snotas i ng l epr oc e s sbutt wopr oc e s s e s  Ca l l e dl i g htr e a c t i ons( phot o)a ndCa l vi nc yc l e( s ynt he s i s ) I ti st heme a nsbywhi c he ne r g yi ns unl i g ht  be c ome sus a bl et ol i vi ngt hi ng s Ar epl a nt smor ei mpor t a ntt ope opl eora r epe opl emor ei mpor t a ntt opl a nt s . S Gp61  Wec oul da r g uet ha tpl a nt sa r emor ei mpor t a ntt ope opl e  be c a us ewes ubs i s tonpl a nt s  Wec ons umet he m a nda r ehi g he rupi nt hef oodc ha i n  Ma nypl a nt sha vebe e ndome s t i c a t e dbype opl e a ndr e qui r epe opl et obea bl et oa c t ua l l ydi s s e mi na t et he i rs e e ds  Fore x a mpl ec or n I nt hec a s eofdome s t i c a t e dpl a nt s  pe opl ea r ej us ta si mpor t a nt t ot he i rs ur vi va l a swea r et ot he i r s * * Di s t i ng ui s hbe t we e npol l i na t i ona ndf e r t i l i s a t i onG14&27+TB697&1058+S G73  Pol l i nat i on–i st hepr oc e s swhe r e bypol l e ng r a i ns  movef r omt hea nt he r t ot hes t i g maonaf l owe r ’ ss t yl e i tpr e c e de sf e r t i l i s a t i on  anddependsons uc hme di a  aswi nd, wa t e ra ndi ns e c t s t a ke spl a c ee x t e r na l l y  Fe r t i l i s at i on–i st hef us i onoft hema l eg a me t e s a ndf e ma l ee g gc e l l s t of or mane wpl a nts e e d`  oc c ur si nt hei ns i deoft hef l owe r  a nddoe snotde pe ndone x t e r na l ve c t or s . * * * * * Na met hef i vec ha r a c t e r i s t i c st ha tde f i nel a ndpl a nt sS G2223  Commont oa l l 4g r oupsbuta bs e nti nc ha r ophyc e a ns  Api c a l me r i s t e m  Al t e r na t i onofg e ne r a t i ons  Mul t i c e l l ul a rde pe nde nte mbr yos S por e spr oduc e di ns por a ng i a  Mul t i c e l l ul a rg a me t a ng i a * * * * De s c r i bet hebi nomi a l s ys t e mofc l a s s i f i c a t i onTB524  Pa r t1i st hena meoft heg e nus( pl ur a l , g e ne r a ) t owhi c ht hes pe c i e sbe l ong s  Pa r t2i sc a l l e dt hes pe c i f i ce pi t he t a ndi suni quef ore a c hs pe c i e swi t hi nt heg e nus  Ex a mpl eofabi nomi a l i sPa nt he r apa r dus( l a r g ec a t )  Thef i r s tl e t t e roft heg e nusi sc a pi t a l i z e d a ndt hee nt i r ebi nomi a l i si t a l i c i z e d  ne wl yc r e a t e ds c i e nt i f i cna me sa r ea l s oLa t i ni z e d

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e Ar et hef ol l owi ngs c i e nt i f i cna me sc or r e c t ?Gi ver e a s onsS G3 * Ac a c i aa e r i ol oba-Ye sbe c a us et hes c i e nt i f i cna mei swr i t t e nc or r e c t l y a ndt hef i r s tl e t t e roft heg e nusi swr i t t e ni nac a pi t a l l e t t e r  bot hg e nusa nds pe c i f i ca r eunde r l i ne d * Pa nt he r apa r dus–No  Thena mei ss pe l l e dc or r e c t l y  Thef i r s tl e t t e ri swr i t t e nwi t hac a pi t a l l e t t e r  Bot hg e nusa nds pe c i f i ce pi t he ts houl dbeunde r l i ne dori t a l i c i s e d * Ophi s aur usvent r al i s–Yesal l r ul e sha vebe e nf ol l owe d

 Homos api e–No  Thes c i e nt i f i cna memus tbes pe l tc or r e c t l yI tmus tbeHomos api ens Na met hehor mone sof * * * * * * Ant e r i orpi t ui t a r yg l a nd–TB964  Fol l i c l e s t i mul a t i nghor mone( FS H)  Lut e i ni z i nghor mone( LH) S t i mul a t eova r i e s&t e s t e s  Thyr oi d-s t i mul a t i nghor mone( TS H) S t i mul a t e st hyr oi dg l a nd  Adr e noc or t i c ot r opi chor mone( ACTH) s t i mul a t e sa dr e na l c or t e x * * * * * Gona ds Ova r i e s( f e ma l e ) Es t r og e ns–s t i mul a t eut e r i nel i ni ngg r owt h Pr og e s t i ns–pr omot eut e r i nel i ni ngg r owt h

 Pr ol a c t i n  s t i mul a t e sma mma r yg l a ndc e l l s  Gr owt hhor mone( GH) s t i mul a t e sg r owt h&me t a bol i cf unc t i ons

-Te s t e s( ma l e ) Andr og e ns–s uppor ts pe r mf or ma t i on

* * * * * * * Adr e na l g l a nds–TB964  Adr e na l me dul l a–Epi ne phr i ne&Nor e pi ne phr i ne  Ra i s ebl oodg l uc os el e ve l &i nc r e a s eme t a bol i ca c t i vi t i e s  Adr e na l c or t e x–Gl uc oc or t i c oi dsr a i s ebl oodl e ve l s  Mi ne r a l oc or t i c oi dspr omot er e t e nt i onofNa + * * * * * Pi ne a l g l a ndTB964  Me l a t oni n–pa r t i c i pa t e si nr e g ul a t i onofbi ol og i c a l r hyt hms * * * De s c r i behowt hec a r bondi ox i dei spi c ke da tt het i s s ue sa ndde pos i t e di nt hel ung sTB1026/ 1028  Co2pr oduc e dbyt hebodyt i s s ue  Co2i sc a r r i e di nbl ood  t ha ti spr oduc et hr oug hc e l l ul a rr e s pi r a t i on  c onve r t e d2bi c a r bona t ei ons  a ndpr ot e i ni nr e a c t i onc a t a l ys e dbye nz ymec a r boni ca nydr a s e  i ti st r a ns por t e dt ot hel ung s  i nt hel ung sbi c a r bona t ei sr e c onve r t e dt oCo2&x ha l e d * * * Di s c us st hepr oc e s sofhome os t a s i sS G97&TB941  Home os t a s i sme a ns“ s t e a dys t a t e , ”

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e  r e f e r r i ngt ot hema i nt e na nc eofi nt e r na l ba l a nc e .  I na c hi e vi nghome os t a s i s , a ni ma l sma i nt a i nar e l a t i ve l yc ons t a nti nt e r na l  e nvi r onme nte ve nwhe nt hee x t e r na l e nvi r onme ntc ha ng e ss i g ni f i c a nt l y.  Fore x a mpl e , t hehuma nbodyma i nt a i nsaf a i r l yc ons t a ntt e mpe r a t ur e  ofa bout37( 98. 6)  a ndapHoft hebl ooda ndi nt e r s t i t i a l f l ui dwi t hi n0. 1pHuni tof7. 4. * * Byame a nsofal a be l l e ddi a g r a mde s c r i bet hel i f ec yc l eofaf e r n, c l e a r l ydi s t i ng ui s hi ngbe t we e nt he g a me t ophyt ea ndt hes por ophyt eg e ne r a t i onsTB686 1.S por a ng i ar e l e a s es por e s  mos tf e r nspr oduc eas i ng l et ypeofs por e  t ha tde ve l opsi nt obi s e x ua l phot os ynt he t i cg a me t ophyt e 2.g a me t ophyt ede ve l opss pe r mpr oduc i ngor g a nsc a l l e da nt he r i di a  a nde g g pr oduc i ngor g a nsa r c he g oni a  e g gf r omoneg a me t ophyt ei tf e r t i l i z e dbyas pe r mf r oma not he r ( Fe r t i l i z a t i on) 3.S pe r mus ef l a g e l l at os wi mt oe g g si na r c he g oni a  At t r a c t a ntbya r c he g oni ahe l psdi r e c tt hes pe r m 4.Az yg ot ede ve l opsi nt oane ws por ophyt e  Youngpl a ntg r owsoutf r oma na r c he g oni umpa r e nt 5.Unde r s i deofs por ophyt e ’ sr e pr oduc t i vel e a ve sa r es pot sc a l l e ds or i .  Ea c hs or usi sac l us t e rofs por a ng i a * * * * Envi r onme nt a l a da pt a t i onsma yr e s ul ti nr oot sbe i ngmodi f i e df orava r i e t yoff unc t i ons . Na mea tl e a s t5 di f f e r e ntt ype sofmodi f i e dr oot sa ndt he i rf unc t i ons( Me mo201/ 2016) Modi f i e dr ootna me Func t i on Pr opr oot s

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BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e

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* * * Na met he5di f f e r e nc e sbe t we e nmonoc ot yl e donousa nddi c ot yl e donouspl a nt s monoc ot yl e donous di c ot yl e donous Onec ot yl e don 2c ot yl e don S t e mva s c ul a rbundl e sa r es c a t t e r e d S t e mva s c ul a rbundl e sa r ea r r a ng e di nar i ng Le a fve i nsa r epa r r a l e l l Ha vene t ve i ne dl e a ve s Fl owe r sof3 Fl owe r sof45 Fi br ousr oots ys t e m Ta pr oots ys t e m 1Pol l e nope ni ng 3pol l e nope ni ng s * * * * Di s t i ng ui s hbe t we e nope na ndc l os e dc i r c ul a t or ys ys t e msa ndg i vea ne x a mpl eofa na ni ma li nwhi c he a c h oc c ur s . Al s ona met het hr e eba s i cc ompone nt sc ommont obot hs ys t e ms . Me mo2016  Ope nc i r c ul a t or ys ys t e mi nt hi ss ys t e mt hec i r c ul a t or yf l ui dba t he st heor g a nsdi r e c t l y. I nt he s ea ni ma l s , t hec i r c ul a t or yf l ui dc a l l e dhe mol ymph, i sa l s ot hei nt e r s t i t i a l f l ui d t ha tba t he sbodyc e l l s .  Cont r a c t i onofoneormor ehe a r t spump t hehe mol ympht hr oug ht hec i r c ul a t or yve s s e l si nt e r c onne c t e ds i nus e s , s pa c e ss ur r oundi ngt heor g a ns .  Ar t hr opodsa ndmos tmol l us c sa r ee x a mpl e soft hi ss ys t e m.  Cl os e dc i r c ul a t or ys ys t e mi st hes ys t e mi nwhi c hac i r c ul a t or yf l ui dc a l l e dbl ood i sc onf i ne dt ove s s e l s a ndi sdi s t i nc tf r omi nt e r s t i t i a l f l ui d.  Oneormor ehe a r t spumpbl oodi nt ol a r g eve s s e l s t ha tbr a nc hi nt os ma l l e rone st ha ti nf i l t r a t et heor g a ns .  The s ea ni ma l si nc l udea nne l i ds , c e pha l opodsa nda l l ve r t e br a t e s Commont obot h:  Ci r c ul a t or yf l ui d/ bl ood  S e toft ube s / bl oodve s s e l s  Mus c ul a rpump/ he a r t * * * * * Di s t i ng ui s hbe t we e nr e g ul a t or sa ndc onf or me r si nt e r msofhome os t a s i sTB941  Ana ni ma l i sar egul at orf ora ne nvi r onme nt a l va r i a bl e i fi tus e si nt e r na l me c ha ni s ms t oc ont r ol i nt e r na l c ha ng ei nt hef a c eofe x t e r na l f l uc t ua t i on  Fore x a mpl et heot t e r

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e  ke e psi t sbodya tat e mpe r a t ur et ha ti si nde pe nde ntoft hewa t e r  Ana ni ma l i sac onf or merf orapa r t i c ul a rva r i a bl e i fi ta l l owsi t si nt e r na l c ondi t i ont oc ha ng e i na c c or da nc ewi t he x t e r na l c ha ng e si nt heva r i a bl e  Fore x a mpl et heba s s I tc onf or mst ot het e mpe r a t ur eoft hel a ke  Re g ul a t i ng&c onf or mi ngr e pr e s e nte x t r e me sonac ont i nuum I nor de rt oa c hi e vehome os t a s i sa ni ma l sma i nt a i n  ar e l a t i ve l yc ons t a nti nt e r na l e nvi r onme nt e ve nwhe ne x t e r na l e nvi r onme nt sc ha ng e s * * * * * * * De s c r i bet hepr oc e s sofc onduc t i on, c onve c t i on, r a di a t i on, a nde va por a t i on  Conduc t i oni st hedi r e c tt r a ns f e roft he r ma l mot i on( he a t )  be t we e nmol e c ul e sofobj e c t s  i nc ont a c twi t he a c hot he r , a swhe nal i z a r ds i t sonahotr oc k.  Conve nt i oni st het r a ns f e rofhe a t  byt hemove me ntofa i rorl i qui dpa s tas ur f a c e ,  a swhe nabr e e z ec ont r i but e st ohe a tl os sf r omal i z a r d’ sdr ys ki n  orwhe nbl oodmove she a tf r omt hebodyc or et ot hee x t r e mi t i e s .  Ra di a t i oni st hee mi s s i onofe l e c t r oma g ne t i cwa ve s  bya l l obj e c t swa r me rt ha na bs ol ut ez e r o.  Fore x a mpl e , al i z a r da bs or bshe a tr a di a t i ngf r omt hedi s t a nts un a ndr a di a t e sas ma l l e ra mountofe ne r g yt ot hes ur r oundi nga i r .  Eva por a t i oni st her e mova l ofhe a tf r omt hes ur f a c eofal i qui dt ha ti sl os i ngs omeofi t smol e c ul e sa sg a s . * * * * * De s c r i bewha ta na pi c ompl e x a ni s . Ex pl a i nt het wohos tl i f ehi s t or yofPl a s modi umwhi c hc a us e sma l a r i a G3, TB660661  Api c ompl e x a ns–a r epa r a s i t e sofa ni ma l s  whi c hc a us es e r i oushuma ndi s e a s e s t he ys pr e a dvi aahos t -c e l l a st i nyi nf e c t i ousc e l l sc a l l e ds por oz oi t e s t he ya r ena me dApi c ompl e x a nbe c a us eononee nd( a pe x )  oft hes por oz oi t ec e l l a ndi tc ont a i nsor g a ne l l e ss pe c i a l i s e df orpe ne t r a t i nghos tc e l l s&t i s s ue s i tr e t a i namodi f i e dpl a s t i d t he ya r e n’ tphot os ynt he t i c t he yha vec ompl e xl i f ec yc l e swi t hbot ha s e x ua l a nds e x ua l s t a g e sofr e pr oduc t i on i tl i ve shi dde nf r omt hehos t si mmunes ys t e m 2Hos t I nf e c t e dAnophe l e smos qui t obi t e sape r s on i nj e c t i ngPl a s modi ums por oz oi t e si ni t ss a l i va S por oz oi t e se nt e rt hepe r s on’ sl i ve rc e l l s a f t e rs e ve r a l da ysi tunde r g oe smul t i pl edi vi s i ons a ndbe c omeme r oz oi t e s  whi c hus et he i ra pi c a l c ompl e xt ope ne t r a t er e dbl oodc e l l s  Theme r oz oi t e sdi vi dea s e x ua l l yi ns i det her e dbl oodc e l l s a ti nt e r va l sof48/72hour sde pe ndi ngont hes pe c i e s l a r g enumbe r sofme r oz oi t e sbr e a koutoft hebl oodc e l l s c a us i ngpe r i odi cc hi l l sa ndf e ve r

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e t he ya l s oi nf e c tot he rr e dbl oodc e l l s s omeme r oz oi t e sf or mg a me t oc yt e s  Anot he rmos qui t obi t e st hei nf e c t e dpe r s on a ndpi c ksuppl a s modi umg a me t oc yt e sa l ongwi t hbl ood  Ga me t e sf or mf r omg a me t oc yt e s e a c hma l epr oduc e ss e ve r a l s l e nde rma l eg a me t e s  Fe r t i l i z a t i onoc c ur si nt hemos qui t o’ sdi g e s t i vet r a c t( z yg ot ef or ms )  Ooc ys tde ve l opsf r omt hez yg ot e i nt hewa l l oft hemos qui t o’ sg ut i tr e l e a s e st hous a ndsofs por oz oi t e s  whi c hmi g r a t et ot hemos qui t o’ ss a l i va r yg l a nd 2015NOV–Re pe a tof2016NOV

2015J UN * * Pos t e r i orpi t ui t a r yg l a ndsTB964 Ox yt oc i n–s t i mul a t e sc ont r a c t i onofs moot hmus c l ec e l l si nut e r us Va s opr e s s i n–( a nt i di ur e t i chor moneADH)–pr omot e sr e t e nt i onofwa t e rbyki dne ys Di s t i ng ui s hbe t we e na bi ot i ca ndbi ot i cpol l i na t i nga g e nt sa ndg i vet woe x a mpl e sofe a c h( Re a dpa g e884889)  Abi ot i c a l l ypol l i na t e ds pe c i e s98% r e l yonwi nda nd2% onwa t e r  20% ofa ng i os pe r ms pe c i e sa r ewi ndpol l i na t e d( Ha z e l s t a mi na t ef l owe r s )  65% ofa l l f l owe r i ngpl a nt sr e qui r ei ns e c t sf orpol l i na t i on. ( Be e sa r emos ti mpor t a nt )  Pl a nt sus ebi ot i ca g e nt sa nda bi ot i ca g e nt ss uc ha swa t e ra ndwi nd  Wa t e r–buoya nts e e dsa ndf r ui t s * Wr i t ee x pl a na t or ynot e sont hes t r uc t ur ea ndf unc t i onsoft hef ol l owi ngS G45/ 52  De r malt i s s ues–out e rc ove r i ng I nnonwoodypl a nt si ti sas i ng l el a ye roft i g ht l ypa c ke dc e l l s i tc ove r s&pr ot e c t sa l l youngpa r t soft hepl a nt r ootha i r sa r ee x t e ns i onsofe pi de r ma l c e l l s  ne a rt het i psoft her oot e pi de r mi sofl e a ve sa ndmos ts t e mss e c r e t e s  awa x yc oa t i ngt hec ut i c l e t ha the l psa e r i a l pa r t soft hepl a ntr e t a i nwa t e r  Va s c ul art i s s ues–i nvol ve di nt r a ns por tofma t e r i a l sbe t we e nr oot s&s hoot s  Xyl e mc onve yswa t e r&di s s ol ve dmi ne r a l supwa r d  Phl oe mt r a ns por t sf oodma dei nma t ur el e a ve s t ot her oot sa ndnonphot os ynt he t i cpa r t soft hes hoots ys t e m  Gr oundt i s s ues–nei t he rde r ma l ornorva s c ul a rt i s s ue I ne udi c ots t e msg r oundt i s s uei sdi vi de di nt opi t h I nt e r na l t ot heva s c ul a rt i s s uea ndc or t e x te x t e r na l t ot heva s c ul a rt i s s ue I ti nc l ude sphot os ynt he s i s , s t or a g ea nds uppor t  Cor t e xofae udi c ots t e mc ons i s t sofbot hf l e s hys t or a g ec e l l s 2014J UN * * Gi veas c he ma t i ca ndl a be l l e dr e pr e s e nt a t i onoft hel i f ec yc l eofamos s . I nc l udebl oc ksofi nf or ma t i ont o e x pl a i ne a c hs t a g e . TB681 1.S por e sde ve l opi nt ot hr e a dl i kepr ot one ma t a 2.Ha pl oi dpr ot one ma t apr oduc e“ buds ” t ha tdi vi debymi t os i s a ndg r owi nt og a me t ophor e s 3.S pe r mmus ts wi mt hr oug haf i l mofmoi s t ur et or e a c ht hee g g ( Fe r t i l i z a t i on)

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e 4.Thez yg ot ede ve l opsi nt oas por ophyt ee mbr yo 5.S por ophyt eg r owsal ongs t a l k( s e t a )t ha te me r g e sf r oma r c he g oni um 6.At t a c he dbyi t sf oott hes por ophyt er e ma i ns  Nut r i t i ona l l yde pe nde ntont heg a me t ophyt e ( Me i os i s ) 7.Me i os i soc c ur s&ha pl oi ds por e sde ve l opi nt hec a ps ul e  Ca ps ul ei sma t ur ei t sl i dpopsof fa nds por e sa r er e l e a s e d Wr i t eabr i e fr e por tone c ol og i c a l i mpor t a nc eoff ung i Habi t at–ar edi ve r s e&wi des pr e a d f oundi na nya nde ve r yki ndofa qua t i c&t e r r e s t r i a l ha bi t a t a r ee s s e nt i a l f orwe l l be i ngofmos te c os ys t e ms

I mpor t anc e–t he ybr e a kdownor g a ni cma t e r i a l a ndr e c yc l enut r i e nt s a l l owi ngot he ror g a ni s mst oa bs or be s s e nt i a l c he mi c a l e l e me nt s  us e da sf ood( mus hr ooms , a ppl i c a t i onsf ora g r i c ul t ur e , br e a dt oa nt i bi ot i c s )  pi nes e e dl i ng swi t hmyc or hi z a ef ung a l a s s oc i a t i onswhe npl a nt e di ns oi l s ur vi vebe t t e ri na bs or bi ngnut r i e nt s&pr ot e c t st hes e e dl i ng s omedoc a us edi s e a s e si nf ood, pl a nt s&a ni ma l s De c ompos e r s–f e e dof fde a dor g a ni cma t e r i a l l i kef a l l e nl og s , a ni ma l s Pa r a s i t i c–pa t hog e ni cs ot he ya bs or bnut r i e nt sf orc e l l sofl i vi nghos t s Mut ua l i s t i cf ung i –l i veof fhos tc e l l sbutr e c i pr oc a t ewi t hs omebe ne f i t s Na met hef ourc ha r a c t e r i s t i c sc ommont ol a ndpl a nt sa ndc ha r ophyc e a na l g a e S ha r et r a i t sS G22  Ros e t t ec e l l ul os e–s ynt he s i s i ngc ompl e x e s  The ybot hpos s e s sar os e t t es ha pea r r a yofpr ot e i ns  Pe r ox i s omee nz yme s–bot hha vee nz yme si nt he i rpe r ox i s ome s  Tha tmi ni mi s et hel os sofc a r bohydr a t e S t r uc t ur eoft hef l a g e l l a t es pe r m–r e s e mbl ei nl a ndpl a nt s  Ce l l pl a t ef or ma t i ondur i ngc yt oki ne s i s–c e l l di vi s i oni sc ompl e x  DNA&RNAs e que nc e ss uppor tt he i rc l os er e l a t i ont ot hec ha r ophyt e s( Cha r a&Col e oc ha e t e )

Api c almer i s t em, Al t er nat i onofgener at i ons , Mul t i c el l ul arembr yos , s por espr oduc edi ns por angi a, gamet agi a ar eabs entnc har ophyc eans 2013NOV Compa r et hec e l l s t r uc t ur eofapr oka r yot i cc e l l wi t hae uka r yot i cc e l l ( Me mo2016) Euka r yot i cc e l l Pr oka r yot i cc e l l Nuc l e us Pr e s e nt Abs e nt Numbe rofc hr omos ome s Mor et ha none One , butnott r ue c hr omos ome Ce l l t ype Us ua l l ymul t i c e l l ul a r Us ua l l yuni c e l l ul a r Mi t oc hondr i a Pr e s e nt Abs e nt Chl or opl a s t s Pr e s e nt( i npl a nt s ) Abs e nt Ce l l s i z e La r g e( 10-100um) S ma l l ( 1-10um) S t r uc t ur a l c ompl e x i t y c ompl e x Muc hs i mpl e r Na met hes i mi l a r i t i e sbe t we e npl a nt sa ndg r e e na l g a( Me mo2016)  The ybot hpos s e s se uka r yot i cc e l l s .  The ybot hc a r r youtphot os ynt he s i s .  Ce l l wa l l ma deofc e l l ul os e .  Chl or opl a s t swi t hc hl or ophyl l saa ndb.  1)Ri ng sofc e l l ul os e s ynt he s i s ;

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e  2)Pe r ox i s omee nz yme s ;  3)S t r uc t ur eoff l a g e l l a t e ds pe r m;  4)For ma t i onofaphr a g mopl a s t Ex pl a i nhowaphot os ys t e mha r ve s t sl i g ht  Aphot os ys t e mi sc ompos e dofar e a c t i onc e nt r e s ur r ounde dbyal i g ht -ha r ve s t i ngc ompl e x  Ea c hl i g ht ha r ve s t i ngc ompl e xc ons i s tofpi g me ntmol e c ul e s i nc l ude sc hl or ophyl l aa ndb a ndc a r ot e noi dmol e c ul e sboundt oapa r t i c ul a rpr ot e i ns t hel i g ht ha r ve s t i ngc ompl e x e sa c tl i kea nt e nnac ompl e x e s t he nt he ya bs or baphot oni ti st r a ns mi t t e d f r ommol e c ul et omol e c ul e  unt i l i tr e a c he sapa r t i c ul a rc hl or ophyl l amol e c ul e t her e a c t i onc e nt r e a tt hec e nt r ei sapr i ma r ye l e c t r ona c c e pt or  whi c ha c c e pt sa ne x c i t e de l e c t r onf r omt her e a c t i onc e nt r e Readr es toft hepage Byme a nsofadi a g r a me x pl a i nt hepr oc e s sofdoubl ef e r t i l i z a t i onf l owe r i ngpl a nt sS G33,  Whe napol l e ng r a i nl a ndsons ui t a bl es t i g mai ta bs or bswa t e r a ndg e r mi na t e sbypr oduc i ngapol l e nt ube t het ubeg r owsbe t we e nt hec e l l soft hes t yl et owa r dst heova r y t henuc l e usdi vi de dbymi t os i sf or2s pe r m t het i poft hepol l e nt ubee nt e r st heovul e t hr oug ht he ymi c r opyl e a nddi s c ha r g e st he2ori nt hee mbr yos a c t hes pe r mr e a c he st hef e ma l eg a me t ophyt e  onef e r t i l i s e st hee g gt of or maz yg ot e t heot he rs pe r mc ombi ne swi t ht he2pol a rnuc l e i t of or mat r i pl oi dnuc l e usi nt hemi ddl eoft hel a r g ec e nt r a l c e l l t hel a r g ec e l l pr oduc ee ndos pe r m  whi c hs t or e sf oodi nt hes e e d t heuni onof2s pe r mc e l l swi t hdi f f e r e ntnuc l e i  oft hef e ma l eg a me t ophyt ei st e r me ddoubl ef e r t i l i z a t i on * * Di s t i ng ui s hbe t we e nr a di a l a ndbi l a t e r a l s ymme t r y  Ra di a l s ymme t r yr e f e r st oa nyi ma g i na r ys l i c et hr oug ht hec e nt r a l a x i s  di vi de st hea ni ma l i nt omi r r ori ma g e s .  Fore x a mpl e , s e aa ne moned  oe snotha veal e f ts i dea ndar i g hts i de .  Bi l a t e r a l s ymme t r yi ti swhe nonl yonei ma g i na r yc utdi vi de st hea ni ma l  i nt omi r r or i ma g eha l ve s .  E. g . l obs t e r , ha sal e f ta ndar i g hts i de . Na met het hr e es ubphyl aoft hephyl umChor da t aa ndg i vea ne x a mpl eofe a c h S ubphyl um( t uni c a ke s /s e as qui r e s ) S ubphyl um( a mphi ox us ) S ubbyl umve r t e br a t e 2013J UN Di s t i ng ui s hbe t we e na nt i g e nsa nda nt i bodi e s  Ana nt i g e ni sama c r omol e c ul e  t ha te l i c i t sa ni mmuner e s pons e  bybi ndi ngt or e c e pt or sofBc e l l sorTc e l l s .

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e  Anda na nt i bodyi sapr ot e i ns e c r e t e d  bypl a s mac e l l s( di f f e r e nt i a t e dBc e l l s )  t ha tbi ndst oapa r t i c ul a ra nt i g e n;  a l s oc a l l e di mmunog l obul i n.  Al l a nt i bodymol e c ul e sha vet hes a meYs ha pe ds t r uc t ur e  a ndi nt he i rmonome rf or mc ons i s t  oft woi de nt i c a l he a vyc ha i nsa ndt woi de nt i c a l l i g htc ha i ns .

Gi vet hef unc t i onofe a c hoft hef ol l owi ng : Di s t a l t ubul e–r egul at est heK+andNaGconcent r at i onofbodyf l ui ds Col l e c t i ngduc t -car r i est hef i l t r at et hr ought hemedul l at ot her enal pel v i Pr ox i ma l t ubul e-Conv ey sandhel pr ef i nef i l t r at e De s c e ndi ngl i mboft hel oopofHe nl e-r eabsor pt i onofwat er As c e ndi ngl i mbofHe nl e-mov ementofNacl outoft hef i l t r at e 2017J UN Di s c us st hee c onomi ci mpor t a nc eofye a s twhi c hbe l ong st ot heki ng domFung i  Pl a ysa ni mpor t a ntr ol ei nt hebr e wi ng&ba ki ngi ndus t r y&wi nema ki ng  I tf or msa l c ohol i cbe ve r a g e sunde ra na e r obi cc ondi t i ons  As pe c i f i cs pe c i e sf or msCo2&a l c ohol  I tc a nbeus e da savi t a mi nr i c hf ood  Pl a ysavi t a l r ol ei nf or ma t i onofs i l k  S omef ung i ’ spr oduc ea nt i bi ot i c s Di s c us st het wog r oupsoft hede f e nc eme c ha ni s msoft hebodya g a i ns tha r mf ul a g e nt s S pe c i f i cme c ha ni s ms–pa r toft hei mmunes ys t e m  Cons i s toft hehumor a l i mmuner e s pons e  Andt hec e l l ul a ri mmuner e s pons e  Tha tpr oduc ea nt i bodi e sa ndde f e nc ec e l l sa g a i ns ts pe c i f i ca nt i g e ns  Nons pe c i f i cme c ha ni s ms–f i g hti nag e ne r a l ma nne r  Ag a i ns ta nyt ypeofa nt i g e n  As e r i e sofde f e nc eme c ha ni s msa r ei nc l ude d S uc ha st hes ki nba r r i e ra g a i ns tf or e i g na g e nt s  Themuc usa ndc i l i a t e de pi t he l i umoft hea i r wa y 2012NOV Ex pl a i nt hes t r uc t ur eofdi f f e r e ntz one sofpr i ma r yg r owt hi nar oott i p Pr i ma r yGr owt h–a pi c a l me r i s t e mi sr e s pons i bl ef orpr i ma r yr oot&s t e mg r owt h c onc e nt r a t e dne a rt het i p r oot sa r eunde r g r ounds t r uc t ur e st oa nc hort hepl a nt a ndpr ovi deame a nst oa bs or bnut r i e nt s r oot sa r eus e da ss t or a g eor g a nsf ort hef oodma t e r i a l spr oduc e dbyt hes hoot 1.Rootc a p–ma s sofpa r e nc hymac e l l st ha tc ove r st het i poft her oot  me r i s t e ma ddsne wc a pc e l l sa sol done sa r el os t c a pi suni quef e a ut ur eofr oot s f unc t i oni st opr ot e c tt hec e l l unde ri tf r oma br a s i on a ndpe ne t r a t i ngi nt hes oi l 2.Zoneofc e l l di vi s i on–a pi c a l me r i s t e munde ra ndbe hi ndt her ootc a p  Pr oduc i ngc e l l st ha tg i ver i s et ot hepr i ma r ybodyoft hepl a nt  Di vi s i onoc c ura l ongt hee dg e s  Pr ot ode r m–g i ve sr i s e st ot hee pi de r mi s  Pr oc a mbi um–pr oduc e sx yl e m&phl oe m  Gr oundme r i s t e m–pr oduc e sc or t e xpr e s e nti nmos ts t e ms

BLG1502PASTPAPERSLongQuest i ons2017-2012 CREATEDBYRI CHELLE LAMBERT G-Gl ossar y TB-Text book SG-St udygui de *i ndi cat esamountoft i mesaskedbef or e 3.Zoneofe l ong a t i on–c e l l ss t r e t c ha ss ma l l va l uol e swi t hc yt opl a s mme r g e  Ce l l ul a re x pa ns i oni sr e s pons i bl ef orpus hi ngt her ootc a pf or wa r dt hr oug ht hes oi l 4.Zoneofma t ur a t i on–e l ong a t i ngc e l l sc ompl e t et he i rs pe c i a l i z a t i oni nt ot i s s ue s  The ybe c omer e c og ni z a bl eduet ot her ootha i r s De s c r i bea s e x ua l r e pr oduc t i onoff ung i  ag e ne r a t i onofof f s pr i ngf r omas i ng l epa r e nt  t ha toc c ur swi t houtf us i onofg a me t e s  bybuddi ngordi vi s i onofas i ng l e -c e l l ore nt i r eor g a ni s mi nt o2ormor epa r t s  r e pr oduc ea s e x ua l l ybyg r owi ng  a sf i l a me nt ousf ung i t ha tpr oduc eha pl oi ds por e sbymi t os i s  r e pr oduc ea s e x ua l l ybyg r owi ngs i ng l e c e l l e dye a s t  byc e l l di vi s i onorpi nc hi ngofs ma l l ‘ budc e l l s ’ ofpa r e ntc e l l s