The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence 8th Edition1

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Test Bank Chapter 01: Multiple Choice

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Question The study of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand: Answer

how and why people from diverse cultures are different. how children learn to speak and understand language. how and why people change across the life span. how humans and animals are similar and different. Add Question Here

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Question The study of human development is empirical, meaning that it is based on: Answer

actual facts. speculation. common knowledge. public opinion. Add Question Here

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Question A crucial element of the science of human development is the: Answer

focus on all kinds of people, young and old. search for the meaning of life. focus on middle-class American people. use of subjective research methods. Add Question Here

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Question Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of: Answer

proteins. nature. nurture. amino acids. Add Question Here

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Question Even though both of LaMont's parents are less than five feet tall, LaMont has grown to a height of 5 feet, 11 inches. His parents lived through the depression era, and LaMont has always had plenty of food and good medical care. His tall height is most likely a result of which of the following? Answer

proteins nature nurture genes Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development? Answer

The relationship between the two moves only in one direction. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture has no effect on our genes. The relationship between the two is clear. Genes (nature) determine our physical traits, while nurture affects the development of our psychological and behavioral traits. Nurture is the primary influence on our overall development. Genes only set the stage, and from the moment of birth nurture takes over. The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture, in turn, affects genes. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following best defines the difference-equals-deficit error?

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The mistaken assumption that a deviation from a norm is inferior to behavior that is statistically normal. The scientific explanation which explains how behavioral deficits interfere with day-to-day functioning. The mistaken assumption that there is no such thing as “normal” behavior because each individual is unique. The mistaken assumption that all variations from normal behavior are a result of nature. Add Question Here

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Question David and Nichole both have normal hearing, and their children all have normal hearing. David and Nichole have decided to teach their daughter Celeste, who is 3, American Sign Language. Based on the research of Goodwyn et al., why might David and Nichole be doing this? Answer

Celeste will probably interact with deaf children at school, so she will be able to interact with all of her peers. Children learn better when they use gestures as well as words when speaking. Children who learn sign language develop better fine-motor coordination. There is no reasonable explanation unless an extended family member is deaf. Add Question Here

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Question Professor Nguyen is a developmental researcher who divides his research participants into groups according to their age. Professor Nguyen is using which of the following to define developmental stages? Answer

cognitive development nature chronology culture Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is NOT one of the domains of human development discussed in the text? Answer

biosocial development cognitive development psychosocial development chronological development Add Question Here

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Question A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as the: Answer

plastic nature of development. dynamic-systems theory. life-span approach. multicontextual effect. Add Question Here

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Question You are a developmental researcher who believes that even a small change in one area of a person's life can lead to larger overall changes in that person's development. Which of the following approaches best describes your thinking? Answer

the biological approach the cognitive approach the systems approach the chronological developmental approach Add Question Here

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Question The notion that development involves gains and losses that do not always occur in a straight line exemplifies the following characteristic of the life-span approach. Answer

multidirectional multidisciplinary plasticity multicontextual Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors which develop over time that appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next? Answer

continuity systems discontinuity critical period Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors which develop over time that appear quite different from those that came before? Answer

continuity systems discontinuity critical period Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following aspects of development appears to fall under the category of a continuous, or persistent, personality trait? Answer

intelligence temperament shyness hardiness Add Question Here

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Question It is much easier for children to learn a second language than it is for adults. This exemplifies a: Answer

continuous period. sensitive period. critical period. discontinuous period. Add Question Here

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Question Assume that the ability to perceive differences in shape must be learned before the age of six years, or it can never be learned. If this is true, it is an example of a(n): Answer

initial learning period. sensitive period. continuity period. critical period. Add Question Here

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Question To understand levels of human development, Urie Bronfenbrenner advocated a(n): Answer

microscopic-systems approach. ecological-systems approach. physiological-systems approach. chronological-systems approach. Add Question Here

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Question An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by: Answer

Jean Piaget. Sigmund Freud. Urie Bronfenbrenner. Erik Erikson. Add Question Here

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Question According to the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David's family on his development is part of his: Answer

macrosystem. microsystem. exosystem. mesosystem. Add Question Here

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Question Within the ecological-systems approach, the customs of the society, as well as the economic and political philosophies of the nation, are all part of the: Answer

macrosystem. microsystem. exosystem. mesosystem. Add Question Here

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Question Within the ecological-systems approach, the connections among the various microsystems are part of the: Answer

macrosystem. microsystem. exosystem. mesosystem. Add Question Here

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Question Cohort refers to a group of people who: Answer

hold the same political beliefs. are born within a few years of one another. support each other in times of stress. participate in a scientific experiment. Add Question Here

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Question When people belong to different cohorts, they differ in: Answer

membership in community groups. socioeconomic status. age group or generation. ethnic or racial groups. Add Question Here

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Question You and your high school classmates are part of the same: Answer

social construction. context. socioeconomic status. cohort. Add Question Here

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Question The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances. Answer

educational socioeconomic historical familial Add Question Here

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Question Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context? Answer

educational ethnic historical socioeconomic Add Question Here

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Question Pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. According to the multicontextual characteristic of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to: Answer

a cohort effect. fond memories of high school. her success beyond high school. social context. Add Question Here

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Question At 55 years of age, Ross lost his job and had to be retrained in a new field that required taking a course over the Internet. Never having gone online, he was baffled while his younger classmates excelled. His frustration may be attributed to differences in the: Answer

cultural context. ethnic context. social context. historical context. Add Question Here

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Question Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's: Answer

culture. ethnicity. social standing. race. Add Question Here

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Question An individual's socioeconomic status includes: Answer

ethnicity. level of education. political beliefs. religion. Add Question Here

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Question The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their: Answer

culture. cohort. ethnicity. environment. Add Question Here

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Question Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon: Answer

A close loving bond can shield children against abuse. More children than adults live in lower-income households. American women tend to be shorter than American men. American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher interested in making a multicultural comparison would be most likely to compare which of the following? Answer

males and females eight-year-olds and eighteen-year-olds computer users and non-users Australians and Canadians Add Question Here

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Question Han's parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han's parents to understand that Han: Answer

is rejecting his Chinese heritage to fit in with his American friends. will experience his culture somewhat differently than his parents do because of having moved to the United States. is having difficulty finding his cultural identity because he is an adolescent. is going through a sensitive period of development, so they need to be patient until he passes through this phase. Add Question Here

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Question If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same: Answer

nation. racial group. culture. ethnic group. Add Question Here

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Question In many cultures around the world, people believe that it is the husband's responsibility to earn the majority of the income for the family. This is an example of: Answer

an ethnic belief. a racial bias. a social construction. heritage. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following has a strong influence on socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and race? Answer

genotype culture social directives stereotypes Add Question Here

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Question According to research by Buckett, which of the following will be most adversely affected by disturbed sleep? Answer

a Hispanic child from a wealthy family children under the age of five years infants who sleep in a room separate from their parents an African American child from a low-income family Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following factors correlates positively with violent delinquency? Answer

SES and child abuse race and SES child abuse and ethnicity SES and social class Add Question Here

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Question The presence of which of the following genetic variations correlates positively with violent delinquency? Answer

high-SES gene high-MAOA gene low-MAOA gene low SES gene Add Question Here

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Question Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else by mimicking the action are called: Answer

motor neurons. mirror neurons. sensory neurons. glial cells. Add Question Here

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Question When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior? Answer

Leila's behavior was strictly coincidental. Mirror neurons were activated. She was exhibiting early signs of high intelligence. She was exhibiting the tongue-thrust reflex. Add Question Here

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Question Our genetic structure is set: Answer

after about 38 weeks of gestation. during the last trimester before birth. at the moment of conception. after about 1 year of age. Add Question Here

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Question How do infants react to their mothers when the mother speaks to them in a monotone, expressionless manner? Answer

They laugh at her odd behavior. They cry uncontrollably. They will try to engage her and reach up to be held. They tend to be wary and disengaged. Add Question Here

Multiple Choice Question The notion of plasticity refers to the:

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fact that many academic fields contribute data and insight to the science of development. universals and specifics of human development in many cultural settings. vast array of contexts in which development occurs. ability of human traits to be molded during development. Add Question Here

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Question The case study of the textbook author's nephew, David, demonstrates that severely disabled children: Answer

should be cared for in special institutions. may be integrated into public education. may live reasonably normal lives. may be limited in opportunities in order to be successful. Add Question Here

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Question The case study of the textbook author's nephew, David, illustrates which of the following? Answer

how poverty can disrupt development the plastic nature of human traits how ethnic and cultural values can interrupt the normal course of development the inevitable fate of some individuals who are born with severe disabilities Add Question Here

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Question The idea that the study of development involves several academic fields defines the __________ characteristic of development. Answer

multidisciplinary multicontextual plasticity multidirectional Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following best defines the term plasticity as it applies to human development? Answer

Development takes place within multiple contexts. Development processes do not always occur in a straight line. Every trait within an individual can be altered at any point during the life span. Many cultures within any given country affect the development of individuals within that country. Add Question Here

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Question Rebecca experienced a traumatic event at the age of four. From that time forward, her development seemed to stagnate. At the age of six Rebecca’s family moved to a better neighborhood with better schools. After this move, not only did Rebecca’s development begin to move forward, but she excelled in many areas of development. This exemplifies which two characteristics of development? Answer

multidisciplinary and multicontextual multicontextual and multidirectional plasticity and multidirectional multidirectional and multicultural Add Question Here

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Question In order to draw conclusions that are based on evidence, rather than opinion or wishful thinking, researchers use: Answer

hypothetical questioning. observational surveys. the scientific method. reflective thinking. Add Question Here

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Question The scientific method: Answer

is used only for the “hard” sciences, such as physics. always involves conducting experiments. requires systematic testing of hypotheses. is not generally used in psychology, as it is quite susceptible to researcher bias. Add Question Here

Multiple Choice Question The first step in the scientific method involves:

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posing a question. running an experiment. selecting a group of participants. asking people to participate. Add Question Here

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Question Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to: Answer

draw conclusions. run an experiment. select a group of participants. develop a hypothesis. Add Question Here

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Question Watching and recording others' behaviors in a systematic and objective manner is referred to as: Answer

scientific observation. a correlational design. cross-sectional research. a laboratory experiment. Add Question Here

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Question Becky wants to study stealing in school-age children. She asked to review surveillance videos from three stores that were focused on the candy aisle. Her method of study is: Answer

a survey. scientific observation. an experiment. an exploration. Add Question Here

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Question If a researcher watches one-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using: Answer

the case-study method. a controlled experiment. cross-sectional research. scientific observation. Add Question Here

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Question If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could: Answer

give half of them candy and see how many would share. mingle with the children and ask them about sharing. bring a small group into her laboratory and observe them eating. watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom. Add Question Here

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Question Scientific observation permits: Answer

the study of individuals behaving as they normally do. determination of cause-and-effect relationships. precise control of the environment. systematic manipulation of variables. Add Question Here

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Question Identify an example of scientific observation. Answer

asking employers about their employee's assertive behavior asking teachers to rate children's activity levels in the classroom watching mother–child interactions at home bringing people to a laboratory to measure memory ability Add Question Here

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Question Scientific observation would probably be the best choice for a researcher interested in:

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beliefs of parents about the drinking behavior of their children. adolescents' risky sexual behavior. obtaining extensive information about a single adolescent's nutritional behavior. the frequency of bullying during school recess periods. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is the major drawback to observational research? Answer

It must be done in a laboratory setting. It cannot be generalized to other populations. It does not allow us to identify cause-and-effect relationships. It violates the ethical standards of research. Add Question Here

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Question Experiments allow researchers to: Answer

study the natural environment. study the entire complexity and uniqueness of an individual. inexpensively adhere to the scientific method. determine a cause-and-effect relationship. Add Question Here

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Question When a researcher is interested in the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is: Answer

the case study. scientific observation. the experiment. the survey. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is the best definition of “dependent variable”? Answer

It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable. It is any unmeasured variable that is not controlled within the context of the experiment. It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher. It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is the best definition of “independent variable”? Answer

It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable. It is any unmeasured variable not controlled within the experiment. It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher. It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher. Add Question Here

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Question An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be: Answer

gender. blood type. eye color. level of depression. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was: Answer

a naturalistic observation. an experiment. a case study. longitudinal research. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the:

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viewing of the violent film. level of aggression displayed before the film. level of aggression displayed following the film. children's home environment. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. In this study, the comparison group was the children: Answer

who watched the violent film. who watched the nonviolent film. whose behavior was the inspiration for the study. who watch at least four hours of television per day. Add Question Here

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Question In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group. Answer

independent dependent experimental comparison Add Question Here

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Question In an experiment, the group of participants who do not receive the independent variable is called the: Answer

dependent group. significant group. control group. experimental group. Add Question Here

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Question When differences between experimental and comparison groups are greater than chance, they are considered to be: Answer

significant. insignificant. effective. ineffective. Add Question Here

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Question When differences between experimental and comparison groups are greater than chance, they are considered to be: Answer

dependence significance meta-analysis effect size Add Question Here

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Question You are doing research looking at how a child’s overall health, SES, and culture affect academic performance. Which of the following would you use to determine this? Answer

factor analysis significance meta-analysis effect size Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is the best definition of “odds ratio”? Answer

a number indicating the likelihood that experiment results occurred by chance a number indicating the relationship between two variables in correlational research a number measuring the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable a number comparing a variable to a standard identified as 1 Add Question Here

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Question A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because: Answer

many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers. many people answer honestly but the interviewers do not believe them. even a representative sample of people will be biased. when asked the same questions again, responses differ. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is an example of a survey method? Answer

personal interviews IQ test scores height/weight statistics school grades Add Question Here

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Question To study people's thoughts about aging, a researcher would most likely use: Answer

a laboratory experiment. a survey. naturalistic observation. the case-study method. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher has just completed a study of Princess Diana, including her family background, life history, and expressed opinions. This is an example of: Answer

the survey method. representative sampling. a case study. objective testing. Add Question Here

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Question The basis for a good case study is: Answer

gathering information from as many people as possible. gathering a single piece of data from a few individuals. detailed information about a single individual. asking the right questions. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following methods of research often provides a good starting point for further research? Answer

experiments case studies meta-analyses factor analyses Add Question Here

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Question Compared with other methods, the case study has a major limitation in that: Answer

it is less intensive and thus less informative. it does not provide sufficient detail on the individual. its conclusions might not apply to anyone else. it requires the consent of the individual being studied. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is the best definition of “odds ratio”? Answer

a cross-sequential design a cross-sectional design a meta-sequential design a longitudinal design Add Question Here

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Question Ten years ago, Abram conducted an extensive review of research on the use of technology by a group of adolescents. When he submitted his work last year for publication, it was rejected. What was the most likely reason? Answer

Adolescent use of technology hasn't changed in ten years. The historical context changed, rendering his research obsolete. Little interest exists in researching the use of technology by adolescents. Abram's hypothesis was incorrectly stated. Add Question Here

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Question The quickest way to study changes over the life span is with: Answer

cross-sectional research. the case study. cross-sequential studies. longitudinal research. Add Question Here

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Question In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different: Answer

sex. social class. age. political affiliation. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of: Answer

a naturalistic observation. cross-sectional research. longitudinal research. cross-sequential research. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research? Answer

There are too many variables to keep track of. Longitudinal changes are not easily measured. Cohort differences—that is, differences in background variables. Cultural differences. Add Question Here

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Question To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is: Answer

cross-sectional research. a survey at the end of the time period. longitudinal research. establishing an experimental group and a control group. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher interested in how computer abilities change with age examines the computer skills of 14-year-olds and 20-year-olds. She finds that the computer skills of the 20-year-olds are better than those of the 14-year-olds. Which of the following is a possible explanation for this result? Answer

higher intelligence of 20-year-olds lack of control group cohort differences better verbal comprehension of 20-year-olds Add Question Here

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Question If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of: Answer

longitudinal research. cross-sectional research. cross-sequential research. a replication study. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, is conducting: Answer

cohort research. longitudinal research. continuous research. cross-sectional research. Add Question Here

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Question Longitudinal research tends to be: Answer

more surprising in its results than cross-sectional studies. less time consuming than cross-sectional studies. more common than cross-sectional studies. not worth doing. Add Question Here

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Question Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to: Answer

disentangle differences due to chronological age from differences related to historical period. disentangle differences in groups of individuals who are of different ages. reduce sample bias. conduct research over only a small time period. Add Question Here

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Question A cross-sequential design: Answer

examines a single group of people who are the same age at one point in time. examines two or more groups of people who are of different ages at one point in time. follows a single group of people over an extended period of time. follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time. Add Question Here

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Question The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is: Answer

positive. negative. zero. causal. Add Question Here

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Question After he got his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is: Answer

positive. negative. zero causal. Add Question Here

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Question A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting? Answer

experimental correlational observational descriptive Add Question Here

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Question If you find a correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that: Answer

high attendance and high grades tend to occur together. high attendance causes high grades. smart children often miss school. smart children enjoy school. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection? Answer

Interviewing all of the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions. Documenting how many hours of television an eight-year-old child watches per week. Observing and documenting the number of aggressive behaviors demonstrated by three-year-olds in a day care setting. Measuring the heights and weights of a group of preschoolers. Add Question Here

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Question Quantitative information always involves: Answer

data on subjects. obtaining much information from research participants. numerical data. studying people over a period of time. Add Question Here

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Question Research data that may be categorized, ranked, or numbered is: Answer

anecdotal. qualitative. quantitative. hypothetical. Add Question Here

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Question Julie is demonstrating probability to a group of school-age children by repeating flipping a coin and predicting heads or tails. The data she collects is: Answer

hypothetical. correlational. quantitative. qualitative. Add Question Here

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Question Research data that is open-ended and not easily transferable to numbers is: Answer

quantitative. qualitative. correlational. hypothetical. Add Question Here

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Question Which of the following is a strength of qualitative research? Answer

It is easy to interpret because the results are expressed in numbers. It is less vulnerable to bias than quantitative research. It is easy to replicate. It allows us to summarize cultural and contextual diversity and complexity. Add Question Here

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Question The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their: Answer

policies and procedures. participant rules. code of ethics. conditions of liability. Add Question Here

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Question Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worker. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's: Answer

policies and procedures. code of ethics. participant rules. conditions of liability. Add Question Here

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15 of 15

Question When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained? Answer

the children's birth records the names of the children's biological parents if the children are adopted the parents' informed consent the names of the children's peers Add Question Here

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Question The initials IRB stand for: Answer

Institutional Research Board. International Research Board. Internal Review Board. Intelligence Research Board. Add Question Here

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Question Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that: Answer

participation is voluntarily, confidential, and harmless for all. they will be paid for their participation. researchers are not liable for unanticipated outcomes. their names will be published in the final research report. Add Question Here

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Question In seeking participants for research studies, researchers must explain the purposes and procedures of the study in advance, obtain written permission, and allow participants to stop at any time. This process is known as: Answer

holding harmless. informed consent. release of liability. rite of research. Add Question Here

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Question An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is: Answer

halting the study if harm is suspected. changing the data to support the hypothesis. obtaining informed consent. maintaining confidentiality. Add Question Here

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Question In order to prevent a researcher's bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the following is an important part of the research process? Answer

keeping the research separate from the participants at all times keeping the names of the research participants anonymous providing details of the study which will allow for replication using the same research team for replicating future studies Add Question Here

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Question Researchers have an ethical obligation to choose topics of study that: Answer

may be researched quickly. may be researched inexpensively. are of major importance to society. are politically correct. Add Question Here