C. select a group of participants. D. develop a hypothesis. Answer: D 7. Once a researcher has developed a hypothesis, his next step in the scientific method is to: A. draw conclusions. B. design and conduct research to gather empirical evidence (data). C. replicate the study. D. report the results. Answer: B 8. Once the researcher has tested his/her hypothesis, the fourth step in the scientific method is to: A. replicate the study. B. report the results. C. draw conclusions. D. write a new hypothesis. Answer: C 9. The final step in the scientific method is to: A. test the hypothesis. B. draw conclusions. C. write a new hypothesis. D. report the results. Answer: D 10. What is replication of a study? A. the repetition of a study, using different participants B. the repetition of a study, using the same participants C. designing a new study based on information from a previous study D. designing a new study using new ideas and information Answer: A 11. Why is replication of a study necessary? A. to answer any questions that were not addressed in the previous study B. to give more researchers more jobs C. it is needed before the scientific community accepts the study's conclusions D. to see if it is possible to do the same study two times Answer: C 12. The term “SIDS” refers to the death of a seemingly healthy infant, usually between the ages of _____ and 6 months.
A. 2 weeks B. 2 months C. 3 months D. 8 days Answer: B 13. Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be: A. put to sleep on their backs. B. put to sleep on their stomachs. C. kept in a warm bedroom. D. fed right before being put to bed. Answer: A 14. What was Susan Beal's hypothesis about a possible reason for SIDS deaths? A. that birth order mattered B. that ethnicity mattered C. that sleeping position mattered D. that parents' education level mattered Answer: C 15. Helene is taking care of her 2-month-old granddaughter, Lucy. What information based on research by Susan Beal would be important for Helene to know in order to prevent SIDS, even though it may differ from information Helene had when she was raising her own children? A. She should put Lucy to sleep on her back. B. She should put Lucy to sleep on her stomach. C. She should make sure that there are many soft pillows in Lucy's crib. D. She should not feed Lucy right before putting her to bed. Answer: A 16. Due to research on SIDS and the recommendations for babies to be put “Back to Sleep,” it is estimated that approximately how many babies lives have been saved in the United States in the last twenty years? A. 15,000 B. 20,000 C. 40,000 D. 55,000 Answer: C 17. Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:
A. proteins. B. nature. C. nurture. D. amino acids. Answer: B 18. Developmentalists' argument over the relative importance of hereditary and environmental influences is called the: A. social-context debate. B. genetic-engineering debate. C. social-engineering debate. D. nature-nurture debate. Answer: D 19. When psychologists say that a given trait is due more to nature than nurture, they mean that the trait: A. is universal; that is, it is found in everyone. B. is a result of experiences. C. is mostly influenced by the genes inherited at the moment of conception. D. cannot be influenced by the environment. Answer: C 20. Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children are emphasizing the importance of: A. nurture. B. the zone of proximal development. C. nature. D. operant conditioning. Answer: A 21. What does current research tell us about the resolution of the nature-nurture controversy? A. Nature is proving to be dominant over nurture in the understanding of human behavior. B. We can no longer attribute behavior to one or the other since virtually all human behaviors result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture. C. Nurture is far more important in understanding behavior than is nature. D. It is clear that some behaviors are driven solely by nature and some are driven solely by nurture. Answer: B 22. Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?
A. The relationship between the two moves only in one direction. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture has no effect on our genes. B. The relationship between the two is clear. Genes (nature) determine our physical traits, while nurture affects the development of our psychological and behavioral traits. C. Nurture is the primary influence on our overall development. Genes only set the stage, and from the moment of birth nurture takes over. D. The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes (nature) set the stage for our development, and nurture affects the manifestation of genetic influences. Answer: D 23. The term for all the environmental influences that affect development after conception is: A. proteins. B. nature. C. nurture. D. amino acids. Answer: C 24. Which of the following summarizes the results of research described in the text involving children who were born in Dunedin, New Zealand? A. Boys who were mistreated by their parents were twice as likely to be overly aggressive regardless of their genes. B. Boys with the low-level version of the MAOA gene were twice as likely to be overly aggressive regardless of how they were treated by their parents in childhood. C. Boys who were mistreated by their parents were twice as likely to be overly aggressive only if they possessed the high-level version of the MAOA gene. D. Boys who were mistreated by their parents were twice as likely to be overly aggressive only if they possessed the low-level version of the MAOA gene. Answer: D 25. Which of the following is the best definition of differential sensitivity? A. The environment only influences genes in negative ways. B. Genes will act in predictable ways regardless of the environment. C. Genes can act in opposite ways depending on the environment. D. The environment will always have an effect on genes. Answer: C 26. What is a “critical period” of development? A. when certain things must occur for normal development B. when a person is in critical condition C. the point after conception and before implantation of a fetus D. any time period after birth when the child is learning
Answer: A 27. The period between 28 and 54 days after conception is considered _____________ for the development of limbs in an embryo. A. a sensitive period B. a critical period C. a plastic period D. a social construction Answer: B 28. What is a “sensitive period” of development? A. when the child is most sensitive to instruction B. when it is most difficult for development to occur C. when a particular development occurs most easily D. when the child is developing emotional control Answer: C 29. With regard to language development, which of the following best describes the ages of 1 to 3? A. a sensitive period B. a critical period C. a plastic period D. a social construction Answer: A 30. The notion of plasticity refers to the: A. fact that many academic fields contribute data and insight to the science of development. B. universals and specifics of human development in many cultural settings. C. vast array of contexts in which development occurs. D. ability of human traits to be molded during development. Answer: D 31. What is plasticity? A. a time in development when it is optimum to develop certain traits or abilities B. the amount of flexibility a human possesses at birth C. the idea that personality, abilities and human characteristics can change over time D. the idea that personality, abilities and human characteristics stay the same over time Answer: C 32. Which concept reflects two complementary features of development: that human traits can be molded yet the individual maintains a certain durability of identity? A. sensitive period B. critical period
C. plasticity D. social construction Answer: C 33. A crucial element of the science of human development is the: A. focus on all kinds of people, young and old. B. search for the meaning of life. C. focus on middle-class American people. D. use of subjective research methods. Answer: A 34. The mistaken belief that a difference implies a lack or inferiority is known as: A. the difference/deficit error. B. standard deviation. C. a social construction. D. the ecological model. Answer: A 35. Exaggerating the differences between men and women is an example of: A. the difference/deficit error. B. the cohort effect. C. a dynamic system. D. the ecological model. Answer: A 36. The system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct defines: A. culture. B. cohort. C. ethnicity. D. environment. Answer: A 37. If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same: A. nation. B. racial group. C. culture. D. ethnic group. Answer: D
38. Social constructions are ideas created by: A. racial origins. B. cultural backgrounds. C. society. D. ethnicity. Answer: C 39. In many cultures around the world, people believe that it is the husband's responsibility to earn the majority of the income for the family. This is an example of: A. an ethnic belief. B. a racial bias. C. a social construction. D. heritage. Answer: C 40. Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon. A. A close loving bond can shield children against abuse. B. More children than adults live in lower-income households. C. American women tend to be shorter than American men. D. American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents. Answer: D 41. A researcher interested in making a multicultural comparison would be most likely to compare which of the following? A. males and females B. 8 year olds and 18 year olds C. computer users and nonusers D. Australians and Canadians Answer: D 42. Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's: A. culture. B. ethnicity. C. social class. D. race. Answer: C 43. An individual's socioeconomic status includes: A. ethnicity. B. level of education. C. political beliefs.
D. religion. Answer: B 44. The theory of human development that views all aspects of development as interacting with one another is: A. the life-span perspective. B. epigenetic theory. C. multidirectional theory. D. dynamic-systems theory. Answer: D 45. What word refers to the concept that a change in one aspect of a person, family, or society affects all the other aspects because each part is connected to all the other parts? A. cohorts B. epigenetics C. biopsychosocial D. systems Answer: D 46. The view that in the study of human development a person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that make up life is: A. the life-span perspective. B. epigenetic theory. C. the ecological-systems approach. D. dynamic-systems theory. Answer: C 47. In order, the three nested levels Bronfenbrenner describes in his ecological-systems approach are: A. microsystems, exosystems, macrosystems. B. macrosystems, microsystems, exosystems. C. exosystems, microsystems, macrosystems. D. microsystems, macrosystems, exosystems. Answer: A 48. The fourth system described by Bronfenbrenner, which is used to connect the other systems in his ecological-systems approach, is called the: A. macrosystem. B. exosystem. C. microsystem. D. mesosystem.
Answer: D 49. What term did Bronfenbrenner coin to describe the impact of a particular time in history on a person's development? A. macrosystem B. exosystem C. microsystem D. chronosystem Answer: D 50. Cohort refers to a group of people who: A. hold the same political beliefs. B. are born within a few years of one another. C. support each other in times of stress. D. participate in a scientific experiment. Answer: B 51. When people belong to different cohorts, they differ in: A. membership in community groups. B. socioeconomic status. C. age group or generation. D. ethnic or racial groups. Answer: C 52. You and your high school classmates are part of the same: A. social construction. B. context. C. socioeconomic status. D. cohort. Answer: D 53. The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances. A. educational B. socioeconomic C. historical D. familial Answer: C 54. Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?
A. educational B. ethnic C. historical D. socioeconomic Answer: C 55. At 55 years of age, Ross lost his job and had to be retrained in a new field that required taking a course over the Internet. Never having gone online, he was baffled while his younger classmates excelled. His frustration may be attributed to differences in the: A. cultural context. B. ethnic context. C. social context. D. historical context. Answer: D 56. For ease of study, human development is often divided into which three domains? A. past, present, future B. biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial C. childhood, adolescence, adulthood D. multicultural, multidisciplinary, multicontextual Answer: B 57. The study of the mental processes humans use throughout the life span would fall into which developmental domain? A. biosocial B. cognitive C. psychosocial D. biopsychosocial Answer: B 58. The study of the development of emotions and the social needs of humans throughout the life span would fall into which developmental domain? A. biosocial B. cognitive C. psychosocial D. biological Answer: C 59. Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else are called: A. motor neurons. B. mirror neurons.
C. sensory neurons. D. glial cells. Answer: B 60. When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior? A. Leila's behavior was strictly coincidental. B. Mirror neurons were activated in Leila's brain. C. She was exhibiting early signs of high intelligence. D. She was exhibiting the tongue-thrust reflex. Answer: B 61. Watching and recording others' behaviors in a systematic and objective manner is referred to as: A. scientific observation. B. a correlational design. C. cross-sectional research. D. a laboratory experiment. Answer: A 62. Becky wants to study stealing in school-age children. She asked to review surveillance videos from three stores that were focused on the candy aisle. Her method of study is: A. a survey. B. scientific observation. C. an experiment. D. an exploration. Answer: B 63. If a researcher watches one-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using: A. the case-study method. B. a controlled experiment. C. cross-sectional research. D. scientific observation. Answer: D 64. If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could: A. give half of them candy and see how many would share. B. mingle with the children and ask them about sharing. C. bring a small group into her laboratory and observe them eating. D. watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom.
Answer: D 65. Scientific observation permits: A. the study of individuals behaving as they normally do. B. determination of cause-and-effect relationships. C. precise control of the environment. D. systematic manipulation of variables. Answer: A 66. Identify an example of scientific observation. A. asking employers about their employee's assertive behavior B. asking teachers to rate children's activity levels in the classroom C. watching mother–child interactions at home D. bringing people to a laboratory to measure memory ability Answer: C 67. Which of the following is the major drawback to observational research? A. It must be done in a laboratory setting. B. It cannot be generalized to other populations. C. It does not allow us to identify cause-and-effect relationships. D. It violates the ethical standards of research. Answer: C 68. Experiments allow researchers to: A. study the natural environment. B. study the entire complexity and uniqueness of an individual. C. inexpensively adhere to the scientific method. D. determine a cause-and-effect relationship. Answer: D 69. When a researcher is interested in the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is: A. the case study. B. scientific observation. C. the experiment. D. the survey. Answer: C 70. Which of the following is the best definition of “dependent variable”? A. It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable. B. It is any unmeasured variable that is not controlled within the context of the experiment.
C. It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher. D. It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher. Answer: A 71. Which of the following is the best definition of “independent variable”? A. It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable. B. It is any unmeasured variable that is not controlled within the context of the experiment. C. It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher. D. It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher. Answer: C 72. An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be: A. gender. B. blood type. C. eye color. D. level of depression. Answer: D 73. A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was: A. a naturalistic observation. B. an experiment. C. a case study. D. longitudinal research. Answer: B 74. A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the: A. viewing of the violent film. B. level of aggression displayed before the film. C. level of aggression displayed following the film. D. children's home environment. Answer: A 75. A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. In this study, the comparison group was the children:
A. who watched the violent film. B. who watched the nonviolent film. C. whose behavior was the inspiration for the study. D. who watch at least four hours of television per day. Answer: B 76. In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group. A. independent B. dependent C. experimental D. comparison Answer: C 77. In an experiment, the group of participants who do not receive the independent variable is called the: A. dependent group. B. significant group. C. control group. D. experimental group. Answer: C 78. A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because: A. many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers. B. many people answer honestly but the interviewers do not believe them. C. even a representative sample of people will be biased. D. when asked the same questions again, responses differ. Answer: A 79. Which of the following is an example of a survey method? A. personal interviews B. IQ test scores C. height/weight statistics D. school grades Answer: A 80. To study people's thoughts about aging, a researcher would most likely use: A. a laboratory experiment. B. a survey. C. naturalistic observation. D. the case-study method.
Answer: B 81. The three methods that social scientists from every discipline use to explore human behavior are: A. observation, experiments, survey. B. cross-sectional, longitudinal, cohort-sequential. C. biological, social, cognitive. D. significance, odds ratio, factor analysis. Answer: A 82. To study change over time, researchers use which three basic research designs? A. observation, experiments, survey B. cross-sectional, longitudinal, cohort-sequential C. biological, social, cognitive D. significance, odds ratio, factor analysis Answer: B 83. The quickest and least expensive way to study development is with: A. cross-sectional research. B. the case study. C. cohort-sequential studies. D. longitudinal research. Answer: A 84. In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different: A. sex. B. social class. C. age. D. political affiliation. Answer: C 85. A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of 3-year-old, 6-year-old, and 9-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of: A. a naturalistic observation. B. cross-sectional research. C. longitudinal research. D. cross-sequential research. Answer: B 86. Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?
A. There are too many variables to keep track of. B. Longitudinal changes are not easily measured. C. Cohort differences—that is, differences in background variables. D. Cultural differences. Answer: C 87. A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, is conducting: A. cohort research. B. longitudinal research. C. continuous research. D. cross-sectional research. Answer: B 88. To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is: A. cross-sectional research. B. a survey at the end of the time period. C. longitudinal research. D. establishing an experimental group and a control group. Answer: C 89. If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of: A. longitudinal research. B. cross-sectional research. C. cohort-sequential research. D. a replication study. Answer: A 90. What is most likely the biggest problem with longitudinal research? A. changing ages of participants B. not being able to keep participants over time C. changing historical context D. participants becoming aware of the goals of the study and changing their behaviors or answers Answer: C 91. Which of the following is the most complex and beneficial way to study change over time?
A. a cohort-sequential design B. a cross-sectional design C. a meta-sequential design D. a longitudinal design Answer: A 92. A cohort-sequential design: A. examines a single group of people who are the same age at one point in time. B. examines two or more groups of people who are of different ages at one point in time. C. follows a single group of people over an extended period of time. D. follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time. Answer: D 93. Unlike other types of research, a cohort-sequential design allows researchers to: A. disentangle differences due to chronological age from differences related to historical period. B. disentangle differences in groups of individuals who are of different ages. C. reduce sample bias. D. conduct research over only a small time period. Answer: A 94. A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting? A. experimental B. correlational C. observational D. descriptive Answer: B 95. A correlation does not indicate that one variable causes the other to occur; rather, it indicates that there is a ______ between the two variables. A. proof B. validity C. reliability D. relationship Answer: D 96. The range of numbers (indicating the degree of relationship) that can occur in a correlation is: A. –10 to +10. B. –1.0 to +1.0.
C. 0 to 10. D. –100 to +100. Answer: B 97. A correlation is considered to be positive if: A. both variables increase or decrease together. B. one variable increases while the other variable decreases. C. no connection between the two variables is seen. D. there is no instance of a positive correlation. Answer: A 98. A correlation is considered to be negative if: A. there is no instance of a positive correlation. B. both variables increase or decrease together. C. one variable increases while the other variable decreases. D. no connection between the two variables is seen. Answer: C 99. A correlation is considered to be zero if: A. one variable increases while the other decreases. B. there is no instance of a negative correlation. C. both variables increase together. D. no connection between the variables is seen. Answer: D 100. The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is: A. positive. B. negative. C. zero. D. causal. Answer: B 101. After he got his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is: A. positive. B. negative. C. zero. D. causal. Answer: A
102. Which of the following numbers indicates the weakest correlational relationship? A. .90 B. –.76 C. .05 D. –.50 Answer: C 103. Which of the following numbers indicates the strongest correlational relationship? A. –.98 B. .85 C. –.40 D. .32 Answer: A 104. What is one of the reasons that correlations do NOT indicate causation? A. Not applicable. Correlations do indicate causation if the correlation is a perfect –1.0 or +1.0. B. There could be a third variable not being taken into account that can interact with the other variables being examined. C. Correlations are unexpected. D. Social scientists do not know why correlations do not indicate causation. Answer: B 105. If you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that: A. high attendance and high grades tend to occur together. B. high attendance causes high grades. C. smart children often miss school. D. smart children enjoy school. Answer: A 106. Research data that may be categorized, ranked, or numbered is: A. anecdotal. B. qualitative. C. quantitative. D. hypothetical. Answer: C 107. Quantitative information always involves: A. data on subjects. B. obtaining much information from research participants.
C. numerical data. D. studying people over a period of time. Answer: C 108. Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection? A. Interviewing all of the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions. B. Documenting how many hours of television an 8-year-old child watches per week. C. Observing and documenting the number of aggressive behaviors demonstrated by 3-year-olds in a day-care setting. D. Measuring the heights and weights of a group of preschoolers. Answer: A 109. Research data that is open-ended and not easily transferable to numbers is: A. quantitative. B. qualitative. C. correlational. D. hypothetical. Answer: B 110. The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their: A. policies and procedures. B. participant rules. C. code of ethics. D. conditions of liability. Answer: C 111. Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worker. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's: A. policies and procedures. B. code of ethics. C. participant rules. D. conditions of liability. Answer: B 112. The initials IRB stand for: A. Institutional Review Board. B. International Research Board. C. Internal Review Board. D. Intelligence Research Board.
Answer: A 113. Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that: A. participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless for all. B. they will be paid for their participation. C. researchers are not liable for unanticipated outcomes. D. their names will be published in the final research report. Answer: A 114. In seeking participants for research studies, researchers must explain the purposes and procedures of the study in advance, obtain written permission, and allow participants to stop at any time. This process is known as: A. holding harmless. B. informed consent. C. release of liability. D. rite of research. Answer: B 115. When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained? A. the children's birth records B. the names of the children's biological parents if the children are adopted C. the parents' informed consent D. the names of the children's peers Answer: C 116. An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is: A. halting the study if harm is suspected. B. changing the data to support the hypothesis. C. obtaining informed consent. D. maintaining confidentiality. Answer: B 117. In order to prevent a researcher's bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the following is an important part of the research process? A. keeping the research separate from the participants at all times B. keeping the names of the research participants anonymous C. providing details of the study which will allow for replication D. using the same research team for replicating future studies Answer: C 118. Researchers have an ethical obligation to choose topics of study that:
A. may be researched quickly. B. may be researched inexpensively. C. are of major importance to society. D. are politically correct. Answer: C 119. Suppose you were curious about people's views regarding instant messaging and how it has affected the lives of Americans. Would the age of the individuals whose opinions you asked matter? Thinking about the concept of a cohort, describe how instant messaging might tend to be viewed by individuals who are 12 years old, 30 years old, and 70 years old.
Answer: Students should affirm that age matters in this case. Specific views will vary, but students should demonstrate an understanding of the importance of historical context. For instance, 70-year-olds grew up without computers, 30-year-olds grew up using computers for a much more limited number of tasks, and 12-year-olds have grown up using the computer as a means of communication. 120. First define and then compare and contrast the following terms: (a) race, (b) ethnic group, and (c) socioeconomic status.
Answer: The term race is used to categorize people based on physical differences, particularly outward appearance (e.g., hair and skin color), even though appearance is not a reliable indicator of biology, genetics, or development. Ethnic group is meant to be a category based on national origin, religion, customs, and language. Social scientists prefer not to use race, because there are no clear-cut categories. SES refers to income, education, community, etc., and is related to ethnic group but is certainly not the same. 121. Cassie is 3 years old and just witnessed her friend Sara fall from her tricycle and skin her knee. Sara starts to cry and the teacher hurries toward her. Explore Cassie's possible reactions to this incident, considering recent research on mirror neurons.
Answer: Recent research on mirror neurons has found “neural activity that mirrors not only the
movement but also the intentions, sensations, and emotions of those around us.” This implies that Cassie may reflect her friend's pain by crying and/or exhibiting facial expressions associated with distress. Cassie may also mirror the teacher's behavior by running toward Sara. 122. Think about a belief you hold strongly that is in disagreement with a belief held by your parent, grandparent, or other adult relative. This belief may concern marriage, education, drug and alcohol use, the roles of men and women, child-rearing practices, and so forth. Briefly describe your perspective on the topic and then describe the other adult's perspective. How have the historical context in which you grew up and the historical context in which the adult grew up influenced your differences on this issue?
Answer: Answers will vary, but students should choose a social construction and sufficiently describe specific aspects of the historical contexts that would influence differences in ideas. 123. Explain why researchers interested in human development study different cultures. Give an example of a research question that would benefit from a multicultural comparison.
Answer: Researchers interested in human development study different cultures in order to allow them to notice when patterns are universal and to provide insights into the effects of different environments. Examples will vary, but students should provide an example that demonstrates one of these purposes. 124. List, in order, and explain each of the five basic steps of the scientific method.
Answer: Step 1: Begin with curiosity. Pose a question based on theory, prior research, or personal observation. Step 2: Develop a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a specific research question/prediction that can be tested through research. Step 3: Test the hypothesis. Design and conduct research to gather empirical evidence. Step 4: Draw conclusions. Using the evidence gathered in the research, conclude whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted. Step 5: Report the results, share the data, conclusions, and alternative explanations. 125. What is scientific observation? Give an example of a research question that could be addressed with this method. Describe one advantage and one limitation of this method.
Answer: Scientific observation involves watching people in their natural settings. Research questions will vary, but should not involve cause and effect, and should include variables that can be observed in a natural setting. Advantages of scientific observation include that it is unobtrusive and that people act naturally. Limitations include that the researcher has minimal control and that one cannot make claims about cause. Observation can also occur in a laboratory or by searching archival data. 126. Define correlation and give an example. Can one determine cause and effect from correlations? Explain why or why not.
Answer: A correlation exists between two variables when one changes (increases or decreases) as the other changes. It is impossible to determine cause and effect from correlations because correlations indicate a connection between two variables but cannot determine a reason for the connection because no other variables are controlled 127. What is an experiment? Give an example of a research question that could be addressed with this method. Describe one advantage and one limitation of this method.
Answer: The experiment is a research method in which a researcher manipulates one variable and then looks for and records any changes in some other variable. Sample research questions will vary, but should involve an independent variable that can be manipulated (i.e., not age, gender, race, intelligence, etc.) and a dependent variable that can change. Advantages include ability to determine cause and effect relations and ability to manipulate or control the environment. Limitations include that it is usually an artificial situation and participants usually know they are research participants, so we cannot generalize to real-world situations. 128. Describe two reasons why it is sometimes difficult to get valid data with a survey.
Answer: Answers will vary, but students should describe two reasons. For instance, people may try to make themselves look smart or nice, wording of questions may influence results, data may be incomplete if everyone doesn't respond, and people can be inaccurate reporters (e.g., memory difficulties). 129. Imagine you are interested in the relationship between age and reading ability for children between 4 and 10 years of age. Briefly summarize how you could test this using a crosssectional design.
Answer: The students should state that they will find several groups of children ranging in age from 4 to 10 years of age. They will then evaluate each child's reading ability or ask parents or teachers to do so. Finally, they will compare the children of various ages and look for differences. 130. Give a brief description of longitudinal research and a brief description of cohort-sequential research. Describe the differences between these two designs, and cite one advantage that each design has over the other.
Answer: Longitudinal research is a procedure in which people of a given age are studied repeatedly over time to measure their stability and change over time. Cohort-sequential research involves examining several groups of people of different ages repeatedly over time in order to examine age differences on a particular variable. Longitudinal design uses a single group, whereas cohort-sequential design uses multiple groups of different ages. Advantages of longitudinal design over cohort-sequential design are that it is simpler to conduct and analyze. Advantages of cohort-sequential design over longitudinal design include that it can differentiate between changes due to age and effects due to cohort or historical period. 131. Defining culture as a social group's “design for living,” think about the college campus culture and the culture in your home. How are they alike? How do they differ? What values are emphasized on campus that may not be emphasized at home? Likewise, what values are present in the home that may not exist on campus?
Answer: Students should compare and contrast campus and home values and then identify campus values not present at home and home values not present on campus.
132. Define and discuss the term plasticity as it relates to human development. What influences plasticity in development? Offer at least one example of plasticity that has operated or is operating in your life.
Answer: Students should include both aspects of plasticity in their definition: the molding of human traits into different forms and shapes, and the durability of identity. Influences include culture, upbringing, and genes. Their example should relate to some aspect of growth in their lives. 133. Summarize methods of ensuring that research is designed, conducted, and reported in an ethical manner. What practices should be built into the study to protect participants and to protect the integrity of the research?
Answer: Students should include the process of informed consent, the need for scientific collaboration and training of the researchers, accurate and objective reporting of results, and replication. 134. Suppose you want to investigate how abuse in early childhood affects personality development in middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using cross-sectional and longitudinal research in exploring this topic?
Answer: Answers should acknowledge that cross-sectional research is faster and less expensive than longitudinal research. Answers should also indicate that longitudinal research has its shortcomings. For instance, it is difficult to follow the same individuals for a long period of time, and it is hard to assess the impact of participation in the research on their development. Alert students may also point out that historical factors are always a potential source of error with both longitudinal and cross-sectional research; results that were true for a particular cohort in one historical period may not hold for other cohorts growing up earlier or later. For instance, some of the long-term results of child abuse may well depend on the attitude and actions of the community with regard to abuse and the ability of medical personnel to detect abuse—both of which have changed markedly during the past twenty years. 135. Using the ecological-systems approach, think about the impact of poverty on a child's cognitive development. Give an example of an influence within each of the following four contexts: family, school/peers, neighborhood/community, and cultural values/economic policies.
Answer: The answers should incorporate an ecological approach to describe the effects of poverty on cognitive development. Answers will vary, but should include the relation between poverty and family interactions (e.g., parents' stress will decrease quality of parenting), school/peers (e.g., the condition of schools), neighborhood/community (e.g., may be unsafe neighborhood, causing children stress on the way to and from school), and cultural values/economic policies (e.g., Head Start program). 136. What are some of the basic rights of children involved in research? Refer to the standards on page 30 of the text.
Answer: When involving children in research, experimenters must ensure that the subjects are not harmed, participation is voluntary, children and parents are informed about what will occur, and all information is kept confidential. 137. Suppose you are on an advisory committee whose purpose it is to ensure that experiments involving young children are conducted in an ethical manner. Give an example of an experiment that you would consider ethical, one you would consider unethical, and one that would be difficult to evaluate. Defend your reasons in each case.
Answer: Answers will vary, but ethical experiments are ones that will ensure that the subjects will not be harmed by the research process and participation is voluntary and confidential. Unethical experiments would involve violation of any of these conditions. One that would be difficult to evaluate would be a study in which there is some potential for harm but also one where there are potential benefits as well (e.g., effects of particular medicines or therapies). 138. Do you think it is ethical for children to be involved in research projects? Why or why not? What are your best arguments FOR their involvement? What are your best arguments AGAINST their involvement?
Answer: Answers will vary, but a clear understanding of the ethical issues regarding children in research should be addressed. Answers must be based in academic understanding and critical thinking. 139. Differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research. Offer at least two examples of methods that may be used for each type of research when conducting a study examining snack food choices in middle-school children.
Answer: Quantitative research includes data that may be ranked, categorized, or numbered, while qualitative research includes data that is difficult to assign numbers to such as open-ended questions and descriptions. Two examples of quantitative methods that could be used when examining snack food choices in middle-school children might be ranking their favorite snacks and determining the average number of snacks that they consume daily. Qualitative methods might be asking open-ended questions about how their favorite snacks make them feel and describing the environment in which snacking typically takes place. 140. Explain the concept of “informed consent,” and identify those from whom consent must be given for either adults or children to participate in research.
Answer: Informed consent is the process of obtaining written consent from research participants before the research begins that explains its purposes and procedures and states that participation is voluntary, harmless, and confidential. Participants must consent in writing; if they are children, parents must consent. 141. Briefly describe one of your personal characteristics or abilities that you believe is primarily the result of nature and one that you believe is primarily the result of nurture. Then, demonstrate how nurture has had an influence on the “natural” characteristic and how nature has had an influence on the “nurtured” characteristic.
Answer: Answers will vary, but students must demonstrate an understanding of the distinction between nature and nurture and of how they interact. 142. Describe the difference between a critical period and a sensitive period of development. Give an
example of each period that is NOT one of the examples in the textbook.
Answer: The critical period of development is a time during which something must happen if it is ever going to happen. A sensitive period of development is a time when development is most likely to happen, although it can happen at a different time. Examples of each period will vary. 143. Define independent variable and dependent variable. Think of an experiment you would like to conduct and identify the dependent and independent variable for the experiment.
Answer: The independent variable is the variable that is introduced to see what effect it will have on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the variable that may change as a result of the new condition added by the experimenter. Examples of each variable will vary. 144. Draft a profile of an infant at high risk for SIDS. Suggest ways to prevent SIDS.
Answer: The first answer should include the profile of an infant who is put on the stomach to sleep (not the back), living in a home where there is a smoker, has a low birthweight, is put to bed with soft blankets and pillows, or any combination of these. The response to ways to prevent SIDS should include recommendations such as putting the infant on its back to sleep, making sure to reduce cigarette smoking in the home, reducing the amount of things (blankets, stuffed animals, etc) put in the crib with the infant. 145. Describe the concept of “plasticity” as it relates to the development of human traits.
Answer: The answer should include discussion of plasticity denoting two complementary aspects of development: the fact that human traits can be molded (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity (as plastic does). The student may discuss something about the concept of plasticity in development providing both hope and realism—hope because change is possible over the
life span and realism because development builds on what has come before, for better or for worse. 146. Explain the concept of experimental significance, providing one example to illustrate this concept.
Answer: The response should include a definition of “significance,” that the difference between the experimental group and the control group is so large that it could not have occurred simply by chance. An example would accurately describe how a predictor variable (IV) sufficiently describes the outcome variable (DV). 147. The science of human development examines how, but not why, people change over time.
Answer: False 148. The primary concern of developmental scientists is to explore the processes of development (“how”), rather than the reasons behind these processes (“why”).
Answer: False 149. The purpose of the scientific method is to find ways to support researchers' hypotheses.
Answer: False 150. A research question becomes a hypothesis when it is restated as a prediction or idea that can be tested.
Answer: True 151. Conclusions of a scientific study are based on whether the evidence supports or refutes the hypothesis.
Answer: True 152. The first step of the scientific method is to test the research question.
Answer: False 153. Replication of a study involves using the same participants to facilitate acceptance of a study's conclusion by the scientific community.
Answer: False 154. The campaign to decrease the incidence of SIDS deaths is called the “Back to Sleep” campaign.
Answer: True 155. The incidence of infant mortality, including SIDS, has increased in recent years.
Answer: False 156. In nation after nation, the incidence of SIDS deaths have been completely eliminated by using the “Back to Sleep” campaign.
Answer: False 157. In 2005, 5,245 babies died of SIDS.
Answer: False 158. In nation after nation, the incidence of SIDS deaths has been drastically reduced by using the “Back to Sleep” campaign.
Answer: True 159. The concept referred to as nurture involves environmental as well as genetic influences that impact development after conception.
Answer: False 160. Nurture begins at the time of conception.
Answer: True 161. Nature and nurture always interact with each other.
Answer: True 162. Nature is more important than nurture in how a trait or behavior is expressed.
Answer: False 163. Certain versions of particular genes may make it more likely for people to develop specific problems or specific strengths.
Answer: True 164. The study conducted in New Zealand on maltreatment in children indicated that the low-MAOA gene, rather than the high-MAOA gene, predicted aggression.
Answer: True 165. A critical period of development is a time when a particular development must happen if it is ever going to happen.
Answer: True 166. Sensitive and critical periods are the same thing.
Answer: False 167. Most periods of development are critical periods.
Answer: False 168. Developmental science studies only young children and adolescents.
Answer: False 169. Males and females have very few similarities.
Answer: False 170. People can be affected by more than one culture simultaneously.
Answer: True 171. Race involves, in addition to outward appearance, shared attributes of heritage, national origin, and culture.
Answer: False 172. Social scientists believe that race is genetic.
Answer: False 173. Culture affects actions more than thoughts.
Answer: False 174. Culture may be understood as a system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct.
Answer: True 175. Humans have to be aware of aspects of culture in order to transmit them effectively.
Answer: False 176. In a research study comparing mothers from the United States and China reading to their children, Chinese mothers used more verbs than nouns.
Answer: True 177. Low socioeconomic status can shorten a person's life expectancy.
Answer: True 178. Socioeconomic status affects a person's life expectancy.
Answer: True 179. The socioeconomic status of a family primarily reflects the household income.
Answer: False 180. People who share a common ancestry and language are all a part of the same socioeconomic status.
Answer: False 181. Development can be conceptualized as linear, or one-dimensional.
Answer: False 182. The pattern of human growth and development is identical for everyone.
183. Individuals in the same cohort are exposed to the same historical context.
Answer: True 184. The term cohort refers to individuals born in the same geographical region and within the same social class.
Answer: False 185. The interactive, dynamic reality of development could be expressed by the term “biopsychosocial.”
Answer: True 186. Brain cells that reflect someone else's gestures, mouth movements, and body actions are called expressive neurons.
Answer: False 187. One reason that the discovery of mirror neurons is so valuable to our understanding of human behavior is because it indicates that merely observing incidents may be like experiencing them.
Answer: True 188. A researcher who watches college students during an exam and counts how many students bite their nails is conducting a scientific observation.
Answer: True 189. A significance level of .05 would indicate that chance would produce this result once in 100 times.
Answer: False 190. The main advantage of observation is that the scientist can make determinations about cause and effect.
Answer: False 191. An advantage of the experimental method is that it has the ability to indicate cause and effect.
192. In conducting an experiment, researchers manipulate the dependent variable to see if it affects the independent variable.
Answer: False 193. In an experiment, the group receiving the special treatment is referred to as the comparison group.
Answer: False 194. In an experiment, the comparison group often varies substantially from the experimental group on basic characteristics such as sex, age, and level of education.
Answer: False 195. The purpose of a survey is to allow a researcher to make generalizations about the larger population.
Answer: False 196. A limitation of the interview or survey method is that people may give inaccurate or misleading information about themselves.
Answer: True 197. A survey enables the researcher to thoroughly study one individual.
Answer: False 198. One disadvantage of cross-sectional research is that differences in results could be due to cohort rather than development.
Answer: True 199. Longitudinal research allows a group of people of one age to be compared with groups of younger and older people of similar social class and educational background.
Answer: False 200. In longitudinal research, the same people are measured over a period of time.
201. Developmentalists agree that longitudinal research is more accurate than cross-sectional research.
Answer: True 202. Cohort-sequential research is a combination of a cross-sectional approach and a longitudinal approach.
Answer: True 203. Correlations indicate that there is a connection between two variables, but they cannot indicate the reason for the connection.
Answer: True 204. When two variables are unrelated, the correlation between them is zero.
Answer: True 205. If we were to find a correlation between level of education and verbal skills, we could then conclude that more education causes increased verbal skills.
Answer: False 206. If a change in one variable tends to go with change in another variable, it is clear that one variable causes the other variable to change.
Answer: False 207. Derrick wants to conduct a quantitative research study for his psychology class. He should develop a series of open-ended questions to collect data for his research.
Answer: False 208. Researchers only need participants' informed consent when the researchers believe that harm may come to the participants during the study.
Answer: False 209. Most research conducted on humans cannot begin without the approval of the Institutional Review Board.
210. The risk of doing harm to participants in a research study can happen at any age.
Answer: True 211. Researchers have little ethical responsibility for how media or politicians might interpret their research.
Answer: False 212. Researchers have an ethical responsibility to study topics that will help people.
Answer: True 213. The study of how and why people change over time and how and why they remain the same is the science of _______ .
Answer: human development 214. Something based on data, demonstrations, or facts is called _______ .
Answer: empirical 215. The _______ is used to rein in a researcher's personal biases and to avoid unexamined opinions.
Answer: scientific method 216. Often the last step of the scientific method is to make the findings available so that other researchers can repeat, or _______ , the research.
Answer: replicate 217. After a researcher has formulated a research , he or she must reformulate it into a specific idea to be tested, called a(n) ______.
Answer: question; hypothesis 218. A hypothesis is an idea (generated by a question) that can be _______ by various research methods.
Answer: tested (or evaluated or examined) 219. When infants who may otherwise appear healthy die unexpectedly in their sleep with no
apparent cause of death, the diagnosis is known as _______ .
Answer: sudden infant death syndrome 220. One public awareness initiative that may be partly responsible for a decrease in SIDS rates encourages parents to put children on their _______ to sleep.
Answer: backs 221. The term that refers to the traits inherited at conception is _______ .
Answer: nature 222. The combination of all environmental influences that affect a developing person is called _______ .
Answer: nurture 223. A time when certain types of development are most likely to happen (although they may happen at a later time) is called a _______ .
Answer: sensitive period 224. _______ period of development is a time in which a particular development must occur if it is to occur at all.
Answer: Critical 225. The characteristic of development that is useful in understanding how individuals and traits within individuals can be molded at different points in the life span is known as _______ .
Answer: plasticity 226. The human tendency to notice differences and then jump to the conclusion that something important is lacking is called the _______ error.
Answer: difference/deficit 227. The system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, expectations and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct is known as _______ .
Answer: culture 228. Social scientists have recently realized that _______ is a confused concept and prefer to focus on the relationship between ethnicity and race and their effect on development.
Answer: race (or racial group) 229. Race is an idea created by society; such an idea is called a _______ .
Answer: social construction 230. When discussed from a social science perspective, SES means _______ .
Answer: socioeconomic status 231. The view of human development as an ongoing and ever-changing interaction between different aspects of a person, family, or society is known as _______ .
Answer: dynamic-systems theory 232. _______ was the researcher who first recommended an ecological-systems approach to developmental study.
Answer: Urie Bronfenbrenner 233. The concept of _______ refers to characteristics that are stable over time (such as gender and temperament), and the term ____________ refers to developmental characteristics that are unlike those that came before.
Answer: continuity, discontinuity 234. Eli wants to compare children's eating habits from the 1950s to children's eating habits today. Using an ecological-systems approach to his research, his historical comparisons would be referred to as aspects of the _______ .
Answer: chronosystem 235. Andrea and her circle of friends were all born within three years of one another. Because of the probability of their experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts, this group of individuals may be considered to be a _______ .
236. A(n) _______ is a group of people born roughly at the same historical time.
Answer: cohort 237. Development is often divided into three domains: biosocial, cognitive, and _______ .
Answer: psychosocial 238. Sean yawned during a meeting and within a few minutes several others attending the meeting began to yawn. The brain cells activated in others by Sean's yawn are called _______ .
Answer: mirror neurons 239. If a researcher observes a family at home, this is considered observation in a(n) _______ setting.
Answer: Observation 240. A statistical technique used to analyze the cumulative results of previous research studies is called a _______ .
Answer: meta-analysis 241. Researchers who want to establish a causal relationship between two variables should use a research design called a(n) _______ .
Answer: experiment 242. In a(n) _______ , the scientist deliberately changes one variable and measures the change in some other variable.
Answer: experiment 243. A researcher interested in examining whether a memory training program can improve the memory skills of elderly individuals tested his program by dividing a group of elders into two groups. The group that received the memory training was the group. Memory skills at the end of the training are referred to as the ______ variable.
Answer: experimental; dependent 244. When differences between the experimental group and the control group are so large that they could not have occurred simply by chance, they are considered to be _______ .
Answer: significant 245. When obtaining information from large numbers of people from written questionnaires, one is using the _______ method.
Answer: survey 246. Research that compares people of different ages who are similar in other important ways is called _______ research.
Answer: cross-sectional 247. Collecting data repeatedly on the same individuals as they age is a _______ approach to conducting research.
Answer: longitudinal 248. When a group of exceptionally gifted students is studied as the students go through elementary school, secondary school, and college, the research design is called _______ research.
Answer: longitudinal 249. Cohort-sequential research can be thought of as a mix between a design and a ______ design.
Answer: cross-sectional; longitudinal 250. The more Drake exercises, the more physically fit he becomes. Exercise and fitness, then, exhibit a positive _______ .
Answer: correlation 251. Brett asked a group of high school students a series of open-ended questions about their study habits. He was conducting _______ research.
Answer: qualitative 252. If Robin is converting all her research into numbers that can be reported as averages, percentages, and so on, her data is said to be _______ .
253. A developmentalist who bases his conclusion on intensive study of one of his own children is using the _______ method.
Answer: case study 254. Each academic discipline and professional society involved in research on human development has a code of _______ , a set of moral principles.
Answer: ethics 255. Research subjects' participation must always be , and the information obtained from a particular subject must be kept ______.
Answer: voluntary; confidential 256. Professor Lopez is researching the effectiveness of a new method of teaching reading to secondlanguage learners. Prior to testing his new method, he had to ensure that all participation was voluntary, confidential, and harmless. Through this process he was seeking the _______ of participants.
Answer: informed consent
Chapter 1 1. The science of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand: A. how and why people from diverse cultures are different. B. how children learn to speak and understand language. C. how and why people change across the life span. D. how humans and animals are similar and different. Answer: C 2. Scientists seek to progress from: A. fact to fiction. B. observation to truth. C. rumor to fact. D. opinion to truth. Answer: D 3. The idea that the study of development involves several academic fields defines the ______ characteristic of development. A. multidisciplinary B. multicontextual C. plasticity D. multidirectional Answer: A 4. The first step in the scientific method involves: A. posing a question. B. running an experiment. C. selecting a group of participants. D. asking people to participate. Answer: A 5. Empirical evidence is: A. theoretical. B. observable and verifiable. C. based on inferences. D. based on opinions. Answer: B 6. Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to: A. draw conclusions. B. run an experiment.